The 4th Principle


Our planet can be the target of external threaten (such as an asteroid). The human being has to be able to defend the planet from these kind of threaten; moreover, he has to develop the technology enabling him to colonize the universe when it will be necessary. The eternity means also acting in this sense.

In order to develop these technologies the countries must support Research and development especially on scientific subjects. The researchers need an economic stability and their wages don’t have to be too different from those of the professors.

In order to measure the country compliance with this principle we use the following variables:

  • Research and development expenditures (% of GDP): an higher degree of research and development expenditures can potentially generate technology development;

  • Number of scientific articles (per million people): scientific article publications help the knowledge diffusion. But it is always necessary to ensure their quality and uniqueness;

  • Number of patent application (total and per million people): this is another way that help the knowledge diffusion;


In this section we analyse the dynamics of some variables (withj the latest available data) related to the abilities of the countries in developing 'Know How.' The analysis is related to 42 countries selected among developed and industrializing countries.