The 2nd Principle

EARTH PROTECTION

The practice of this principle derive from the knowledge of what can damage the earth. It is difficult to define all the actions that have generated or could generate damages to the earth. But it is possible to classify them in three aggregations:

  • Actions that damage the natural biodiversity:
a. Excessive substitution of the natural environment with the artificial one (extensive constructions);
b. Nuclear plants: in case of accident can cause a lot of problems to the earth;
c. Excessive production of waste;
d. Irrational diffusion of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO);
e. Commercial hunting that doesn’t take into consideration the real need of the population;
f. ……
  • Actions in conflict with the planet climate equilibrium:

a. Air pollution :
the most part of living being (man included) can live only under specific and stable climate conditions (temperature range and not turbulent atmospheric conditions). Many words have been already said about the “global warming” but what have been done to solve this problem? We live yet in a society with a consumerist and egocentric lifestyle. Another big problem is the excessive dependence from the oil as source of energy.

  • Actions that generate inequalities and social dissatisfaction leading to wars inside and between populations:
a. Inequalities inside and between populations:
all countries have to offer a decent life to their citizens avoiding strong inequalities in the life standards. In this way, we can stop the diffusion of hate, terrorism, riots, and mass migrations. Each country needs the necessary infrastructures and institutions (also thanks to outside aids) able to ensure good life conditions. Water, electricity, gas and transport system are the essential infrastructures. Another important topic is the education system: it is important to avoid situations in which rich children can have an access to education institutions better than that attended by poor children.

Moreover, countries have to support the development of technologies that can eliminate the environmental damages already generated (air water and land pollution).

As said, the variables used in order to measure a country behavior in term of earth protection are classified in environmental variables (measuring the pollution and the source exploitation) and social variables (measuring social participation, social equality and social development):

  • Pollution variables
i) Co2 emissions (total and per capita)
ii) Forest land (% of total land)
iii) Marine protected area (% of total surface)
  • Energy variables
i) Energy per capita use
ii) Combustible renewable and waste (% of total Energy use)
iii) Operative nuclear plants (total and per billions people)
  • Cohesion and social development variables
i) Labor participation rate
ii) Human development index (By the Human development organization)

Variables

In this section we analize the dynamics of some variables (with the latest available data) with reference to the environmental footprint and social cohesion in 42 countries selected among Developed and Industrilizing countries.

  

CO2 Total Emissions
 
The following table rank the advanced countries based on Co2 total emissions. The most recent available data are at 2010 (source: The World Bank). Obviously, social and economic dimensions of a country influences its Co2 total emissions; but this data gives us a picture of what are the countries that generate more air pollution and the dynamics in their CO2 emissions. At 2010 the less polluting countries are Iceland, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Estonia and New Zealand; on the other hand, China, the United States, India, Russia and Japan are the countries that contribute most to the world air pollution (the 55.4% of world total, an increase compared with 55.1% in 2009 and 54.1% in 2008).
 
Table - Co2 emissions in 2009 and 2010
Kilo tons, Advanced Countries ranking
Best 21 countries
 
Worst 21countries
Country
2009
2010
2010 % Change on 2009
 
Ranking
Country
2009
2010
2010 % Change on 2009
Iceland
2,054
1,962
-4.5
  22° Netherlands
169,650
182,078
7.3
Luxembourg
10,249
10,829
5.7
  23° Spain
288,237
269,675
-6.4
Slovenia
15.310
15,328
0.1
  24° Turkey
277,845
298,002
7.3
Estonia
14,745
18,339
24.4
  25° Poland
298,787
317,254
6.2
New Zealand
32,325
31,551
-2.4
  26° France
356,924
361,273
1.2
Slovak Republic
33,890
36,094
6.5
  27° Australia
395,094
373,081
-5.6
Switzerland
41,598
38,757
-6.8
  28° Italy
401,592
406,307
1.2
Ireland
40,623
40,000
-1.5
  29° Brazil
367,147
419,754
14.3
Denmark
44,503
46,303
4.0
  30° Indonesia
453,106
433,989
-4.2
Hungary
48,676
50,583
3.9
  31° Mexico
446,237
443,674
-0.6
Portugal
57,411
52,361
-8.8
  32° South Africa
503,941
460,124
-8.7
Sweden
43,744
52,515
20.1
  33° Saudi Arabia
431,027
464,481
7.8
Norway
47,077
57,187
21.5
  34° United Kingdom
475,108
493,505
3.9
Finland
53,168
61,844
16.3
  35° Canada
513,937
499,137
-2.9
Austria
62,262
66,897
7.4
  36° Korea, Rep.
509,376
567,567
11.4
Israel
67,029
70,656
5.4
  37° Germany
732,249
745,384
1.8
Chile
67,267
72,258
7.4
  38° Japan
1,100,650
1,170,715
6.4
Greece
94,902
86,717
-8.6
  39° Russian Federation
1,574,368
1,740,776
10.6
Belgium
104,194
108,947
4.6
  40° India
1,982,263
2,008,823
1.3
Czech Republic
108,121
111,752
3.4
  41° United States
5,311,840
5,433,057
2.3
Argentina
179,639
180,512
0.5
  42° China
7,692,211
8,286,892
7.7
                   
Advanced countries average
605,961
633,022
4.5
           

Source: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data   

 

CO2 Per Capita Emissions 

The following figures and tables rank the advanced countries based on Co2 per capita emissions. Unlike Co2 total emissions, this data takes into consideration the size of the country analyzed, as the index is a division between the country’s Co2 total emissions and its population. The most recent available data are at 2010 (source: The World Bank). The countries with the lowest levels of Co2 per capita emissions are India, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico and Turkey. It’s interesting to notice that Chine and India have a better ranking than that found considering Co2 total emissions. The most polluting countries in terms of Co2 emissions per capita are Luxembourg, the United States, Australia, Canada and Saudi Arabia. While in 2009, due to the economic recession, most of the countries analysed have registered a decrease in CO2 emissions per capita, in 2010 data, especially for the wealthiest countries has increased again.

Table - Co 2 emissions per capita in 2009 and 2010
metric tons per capita,  Advanced Countries ranking
Best 21 countries
 
Worst 21countries
Ranking
Country
2009
2010
2010 % Change on 2009
 
Ranking
Country
2009
2010
2010 % Change on 2009
India
1.67
1.67
0.0
 
22°
Austria
7.44
7.97
7.1
Indonesia
1.91
1.80
-5.5
 
23°
Poland
7.83
8.31
6.1
Brazil
1.90
2.15
13.3
 
24°
Denmark
8.06
8.35
3.6
Mexico
3.83
3.76
-1.8
 
25°
Ireland
9.11
8.94
-1.9
Turkey
3.90
4.13
5.9
 
26°
Germany
8.94
9.11
1.9
Chile
3.96
4.21
6.4
 
27°
Japan
8.63
9.19
6.5
Argentina
4.49
4.47
-0.4
 
28°
South Africa
10.22
9.20
-9.9
Portugal
5.40
4.92
-8.8
 
29°
Israel
8.95
9.27
3.5
Switzerland
5.37
4.95
-7.8
 
30°
Belgium
9.65
10.00
3.6
10°
Hungary
4.86
5.06
4.2
 
31°
Czech Republic
10.31
10.62
3.0
11°
France
5.52
5.56
0.7
 
32°
Netherlands
10.26
10.96
6.8
12°
Sweden
4.70
5.60
19.0
 
33°
Korea, Rep.
10.36
11.49
10.9
13°
Spain
6.28
5.85
-6.8
 
34°
Finland
9.96
11.53
15.8
14°
Iceland
6.45
6.17
-4.3
 
35°
Norway
9.75
11.70
20.0
15°
China
5.78
6.19
7.2
 
36°
Russian Federation
11.09
12.23
10.2
16°
Slovak Republic
6.25
6.65
6.3
 
37°
Estonia
11.00
13.68
24.4
17°
Italy
6.67
6.72
0.7
 
38°
Canada
15.24
14.63
-4.0
18°
New Zealand
7.49
7.22
-3.6
 
39°
Australia
18.14
16.91
-6.8
19°
Slovenia
7.51
7.48
-0.3
 
40°
Saudi Arabia
16.09
17.04
5.9
20°
Greece
8.41
7.67
-8.8
 
41°
United States
17.32
17.56
1.4
21°
United Kingdom
7.69
7.93
3.1
 
42°
Luxembourg
20.59
21.36
3.7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Advanced Countries average
8.31
8.58
3.2
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sources: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data
 
 
Forest Land
 
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on the forest land in percentage of total land. Data are strongly influenced by country climate characteristics: countries with hot climate will have a worse rank in comparison with those with e wet climate. Nevertheless, it’s interesting to analyse the countries in order to discover which is characterized by a higher percentage of forest land. The latest available data (source: the World Bank) are at 2012.  In 2012 the countries with the highest percentages are Finland (72.9%), Sweden (69.2%), Japan (68.6%), the Republic of Korea (63.8%) and Slovenia (62.4%).
 
Table - Forest Area in 2005, 2010, 2011 and 2012
% of land area, Advanced countries ranking, Italian decimal system
  2005 2010 2011 2012 Change 2012 on 2005 Change 2012 on 2011   2005 2010 2011 2012 Change 2012 on 2005 Change 2012 on 2011
Finland 72.7 72.9 72.9 72.9 0.2 0.0 New Zealand 31.6 31.4 31.4 31.3 -0.2 0.0
Sweden 68.7 68.7 68.7 69.2 0.5 0.5 Greece 29.1 30.3 30.5 30.7 1.6 0.2
Japan 68.4 68.5 68.6 68.6 0.2 0.0 Poland 30.0 30.7 30.8 30.7 0.6 -0.1
Korea, Rep. 64.6 64.1 64.0 63.8 -0.8 -0.2 France 28.7 29.1 29.2 29.3 0.6 0.1
Slovenia 61.7 62.2 62.3 62.4 0.7 0.1 Norway 31.8 33.1 33.3 28.0 -3.8 -5.4
Brazil 62.7 61.4 61.2 61.6 -1.1 0.5 India 22.8 23.0 23.1 23.1 0.3 0.0
Estonia 53.1 52.3 52.1 51.8 -1.3 -0.3 China 20.7 22.2 22.5 22.6 1.9 0.1
Indonesia 54.0 52.1 51.7 51.4 -2.6 -0.4 Hungary 22.1 22.4 22.5 22.6 0.5 0.1
Russian Federation 49.4 49.4 49.4 49.4 0.0 0.0 Belgium 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.5 0.2 0.0
Austria 46.8 47.2 47.2 47.3 0.4 0.1 Chile 21.6 21.8 21.9 21.9 0.4 0.1
Slovak Republic 40.2 40.2 40.2 40.2 0.0 0.0 Australia 20.0 19.4 19.3 19.2 -0.8 -0.1
Portugal 37.6 37.8 37.8 37.8 0.2 0.0 Turkey 14.0 14.7 14.9 15.0 1.1 0.2
Spain 34.6 36.4 36.8 37.1 2.5 0.4 Denmark 12.6 12.8 12.9 12.9 0.3 0.0
Czech Republic 34.3 34.4 34.4 34.5 0.2 0.0 United Kingdom 11.8 11.9 11.9 12.0 0.2 0.0
Canada 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 0.0 0.0 Ireland 10.1 10.7 10.9 11.0 0.9 0.1
Luxembourg 33.5 33.5 33.5 33.5 0.0 0.0 Netherlands 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 0.0 0.0
United States 33.0 33.2 33.3 33.3 0.3 0.0 Argentina 11.2 10.7 10.7 10.6 -0.6 -0.1
Mexico 33.7 33.3 33.3 33.2 -0.6 -0.1 South Africa 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 0.0 0.0
Germany 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 0.0 0.0 Israel 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1 -0.1 0.0
Italy 29.8 31.1 31.4 31.6 1.9 0.3 Saudi Arabia 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0
Switzerland 30.4 31.0 31.1 31.6 1.2 0.5 Iceland 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0
                           
Advanced Countries average 31.9 32.1 32.1 32.1 0.1 -0.1              
Sources: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data  

 

Marine Protected Area
 
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on the Marine protected area in percentage of total surface. Countries like Switzerland and Austria are excluded because of their geographic characteristics (absence of Marine surface). Nevertheless, it is interesting to notice how the other countries behave. The latest available data are at 2010 (source: The World Bank). According to 2010 data, the country with the highest percentage isGermany (40.3%), following the United States (28.6%),Australia (28.3%), Estonia (26.5%) and Netherlands (22.1%). In the last positions, with percentages next to “0”, we find Argentina, Israel, Slovenia, Ireland and Belgium. Compared with 2005’s data, some countries like France, Germany and New Zealand have strongly improved their ranking
 
Tab. - Marine Protected Area in 2005, 2009 and 2010
(% of total surface area, Advanced countries ranking)
Best 21 countries
 
Worst 15s countries
Ranking
Country
2005
2009
2010
Change: 2010 on 2005
 
Ranking
Country
2005
2009
2010
Change: 2010 
on 2005
Germany
37.0
40.3
40.3
3.3
 
22°
Saudi Arabia
3.4
3.4
3.4
0.0
United States
27.3
28.6
28.6
1.3
 
23°
Denmark
3.1
3.2
3.2
0.1
Australia
27.6
28.3
28.3
0.8
 
24°
Portugal
2.2
3.1
3.1
0.9
Estonia
26.1
26.5
26.5
0.4
 
25°
Greece
2.3
2.6
2.6
0.3
Netherlands
20.4
22.1
22.1
1.7
 
26°
Turkey
2.4
2.4
2.4
0.0
France
16.8
21.3
21.3
4.6
 
27°
Norway
2.3
2.4
2.4
0.1
Italy
17.4
17.4
17.4
0.0
 
28°
Indonesia
1.9
2.0
2.0
0.0
Mexico
14.4
16.7
16.7
2.3
 
29°
India
1.7
1.7
1.7
0.0
Brazil
16.1
16.5
16.5
0.4
 
30°
China
1.3
1.3
1.3
0.0
10°
Russian Federation
10.8
10.8
10.8
0.0
 
31°
Canada
0.9
1.0
1.2
0.3
11°
New Zealand
7.1
10.8
10.8
3.7
 
32°
Argentina
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.0
12°
South Africa
6.5
6.5
6.5
0.0
 
33°
Slovenia
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.0
13°
United Kingdom
5.7
5.7
5.7
0.0
 
34°
Israel
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.0
14°
Japan
5.5
5.5
5.5
0.0
 
35°
Ireland
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0
15°
Sweden
5.2
5.3
5.3
0.2
 
36°
Belgium
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
16°
Finland
5.0
5.0
5.0
0.0
 
-
Austria
na
na
na
na
17°
Poland
4.1
4.1
4.1
0.0
 
-
Czech Republic
na
na
na
na
18°
Iceland
3.8
3.9
3.9
0.1
 
-
Hungary
na
na
na
na
19°
Korea, Rep.
3.8
3.9
3.9
0.1
 
-
Luxembourg
na
na
na
na
20°
Chile
3.7
3.7
3.7
0.0
 
-
Slovak Republic
na
na
na
na
21°
Spain
3.5
3.5
3.5
0.0
 
-
Switzerland
na
na
na
na
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Advanced Countries average
8.1
8.7
8.7
0.6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Source: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data

 

Energy Consumption
 
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on the energy consumption per capita (in terms of kg of oil equivalent). It’s an important indicator as, in a long term perspective, in order to reduce the exploitation of the earth sources, we must consume less energy. The latest available data are at 2012 (source: The World Bank). The countries with the lowest levels of energy consumption per capita are India, Indonesia, Brazil, Turkey and Mexico (China places 8th thanks to its large population). On the other hand, the countries with the highest energy consumption per capita are Saudi Arabia, the United States, Canada, Luxembourg and Iceland. In many countries, due to the international economic crisis, energy use per capita decreased between 2009 and 2012; however in most of the emerging countries energy use increased in the same period.
 
Table - Energy use in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012
(kg of oil equivalent per capita, Advanced countries ranking)
 
 
2009
2010
2011
2012
2012 % Change on 2009
2012 % Change on 2011
 
 
2009
2010
2011
2012
2012 % Change on 2009 2012 % Change on 2011
India*
586.8
600.3
613.7
613.7
4.6
-
22°
Slovenia
3479.4
3529.4
3531.1
3472.3
-0.2
-1.7
Indonesia*
841.2
877.9
857.3
857.3
1.9
-
23°
Japan
3701.6
3916.0
3610.4
3539.5
-4.4
-2.0
Brazil*
1242.8
1362.1
1371.1
1371.1
10.3
-
24°
Germany
3824.7
4032.5
3811.5
3821.9
-0.1
0.3
Turkey
1370.8
1457.4
1539.3
1563.6
14.1
1.6
25°
France
3917.4
4016.4
3869.2
3832.5
-2.2
-0.9
Mexico
1509.6
1517.8
1559.7
1588.2
5.2
1.8
26°
Austria
3820.9
4079.8
3927.9
3902.3
2.1
-0.7
Chile
1735.2
1802.8
1939.7
1873.5
8.0
-3.4
27°
Czech Republic
4025.7
4204.8
4137.7
4074.2
1.2
-1.5
Argentina*
1900.8
1935.9
1967.0
1967.0
3.5
-
28°
New Zealand
4047.8
4186.8
4124.0
4188.2
3.5
1.6
China*
1717.3
1881.4
2029.4
2029.4
18.2
-
29°
Estonia
3558.7
4181.6
4220.9
4317.4
21.3
2.3
Portugal
2285.3
2226.5
2186.5
2087.4
-8.7
-4.5
30°
Netherlands
4729.2
5021.0
4637.8
4668.5
-1.3
0.7
10°
Greece
2631.2
2475.9
2402.4
2343.0
-11.0
-2.5
31°
Russian Federation*
4558.7
4932.3
5113.2
5113.2
12.2
-
11°
Hungary
2480.3
2566.7
2503.4
2368.8
-4.5
-5.4
32°
Sweden
4883.2
5471.8
5190.3
5134.5
5.1
-1.1
12°
Poland
2463.9
2659.2
2629.2
2505.3
1.7
-4.7
33°
Belgium
5288.4
5576.1
5349.0
5147.8
-2.7
-3.8
13°
Italy
2789.7
2871.9
2819.4
2664.0
-4.5
-5.5
34°
Korea, Rep.
4659.8
5058.9
5231.9
5259.6
12.9
0.5
14°
Spain
2755.1
2742.7
2686.4
2666.3
-3.2
-0.7
35°
Australia
5629.2
5560.7
5500.8
5882.8
4.5
6.9
15°
South Africa*
2842.5
2795.7
2740.8
2740.8
-3.6
0.0
36°
Norway
6166.2
6614.2
5680.7
5941.6
-3.6
4.6
16°
Ireland
3167.1
3118.1
2887.7
2910.4
-8.1
0.8
37°
Finland
6229.6
6792.3
6449.0
6183.2
-0.7
-4.1
17°
United Kingdom
3155.0
3215.6
2973.1
3020.3
-4.3
1.6
38°
Saudi Arabia*
6555.9
7043.8
6738.4
6738.4
2.8
-
18°
Israel
2867.2
3042.5
2994.4
3044.0
6.2
1.7
39°
United States
7055.6
7162.4
7032.5
6794.0
-3.7
-3.4
19°
Denmark
3323.9
3480.3
3230.8
3047.5
-8.3
-5.7
40°
Canada
7473.6
7381.0
7333.3
7269.6
-2.7
-0.9
20°
Slovak Republic
3106.9
3306.7
3213.7
3083.8
-0.7
-4.0
41°
Luxembourg
7946.5
8324.2
8045.9
7684.0
-3.3
-4.5
21°
Switzerland
3482.5
3348.1
3207.0
3188.7
-8.4
-0.6
42°
Iceland
16904.9
16882.5
17964.4
18775.0
11.1
4.5
 
Advanced Countries average
3969.3
4125.1
4044.1
4030.3
1.5
-0.3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
* 2011
Source: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data

 

Energy from Renewable Combustible 
 
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on the percentage weight of energy made up by combustible renewable (solid and liquid biomass and biogas) and industrial and municipal waste on total energy used. Even if this indicator doesn’t take into account renewable energies (sun and wind), it’s a good indicator of the capacity of a country to make its waste and its combustible renewable a source for the society. The latest available data (source: The World Bank) are at 2012. Brazil (28.9%), Indonesia (25.4%), Finland (25.2%), India (24.7%), and Sweden (21.5%) are the best ranked advanced countries. Among these countries, Finland is the only one that improved its ranking in 2012. At the bottom of the table we find South Korea, Russia, Israel, Iceland and Saudi Arabia, with percentages next to “0”. 
 
Table - Combustible renewable and waste in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012
(% of total energy use, Advanced countries ranking)
 
 
2009
2010
2011
2012
Change: 2012 on 2009
 
 
2009
2010
2011
2012
Change: 2012 on 2009
Brazil*
31.6
30.7
28.9
28.9
-2.8
22°
Norway
4.8
5.3
6.4
6.4
1.6
Indonesia*
26.3
25.6
25.4
25.4
-0.9
23°
Spain
5.1
5.2
5.7
6.0
1.0
Finland
21.1
22.7
23.3
25.2
4.1
24°
France
5.7
5.9
5.6
5.7
0.1
India*
25.2
24.9
24.7
24.7
-0.6
25°
Slovak Republic
4.7
5.0
5.5
5.3
0.6
Sweden
22.9
23.2
20.4
21.5
-1.3
26°
Greece
3.4
3.9
4.7
5.2
1.8
Denmark
16.8
18.5
19.7
21.3
4.5
27°
Netherlands
4.4
4.2
4.6
4.7
0.3
Austria
17.6
18.6
19.0
20.5
2.9
28°
Canada
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.6
-0.1
Chile
18.7
15.9
17.6
19.0
0.3
29°
Mexico
4.8
4.7
4.4
4.4
-0.4
Portugal
13.8
13.5
13.9
14.7
0.9
30°
United States
3.9
4.0
4.2
4.2
0.4
10°
Estonia
14.7
14.7
14.2
13.9
-0.8
31°
Argentina*
3.0
3.5
3.8
3.8
0.8
11°
South Africa*
9.9
10.1
10.3
10.3
0.4
32°
United Kingdom
2.7
2.9
3.3
3.6
0.9
12°
Switzerland
8.3
8.9
9.0
9.3
1.1
33°
Luxembourg
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.5
0.0
13°
Belgium
4.8
5.1
8.9
9.2
4.4
34°
Ireland
2.3
2.6
2.9
3.2
0.9
14°
Poland
7.1
7.5
8.1
8.9
1.8
35°
Turkey
4.8
4.3
3.3
3.2
-1.6
15°
Germany
7.9
8.9
8.5
8.9
1.0
36°
Australia
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.0
-0.4
16°
Slovenia
8.5
9.0
8.5
8.8
0.3
37°
Japan
1.4
2.0
2.3
2.3
0.9
17°
China*
9.2
8.5
7.9
7.9
-1.2
38°
Korea, Rep.
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
0.3
18°
Hungary
7.1
7.3
7.2
7.6
0.5
39°
Russian Federation*
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.0
19°
Czech Republic
5.6
6.0
6.5
7.0
1.4
40°
Israel
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.1
20°
Italy
4.3
5.1
6.1
6.7
2.5
41°
Iceland
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
21°
New Zealand
6.1
6.5
6.6
6.5
0.4
42°
Saudi Arabia*
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
 
Advanced Countries average
8.4
8.5
8.7
8.1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
* 2011
Source: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data

 

Nuclear Plants
 
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on the number of operative nuclear plants. The higher this number, the higher the possibility to generate nuclear disasters. Data (from IAEA - Internetional Atomic Energy Agency)  refers to December 2014. At that time, there are 438 Operative Nuclear Plants around the world; most of these plnats are in few countries: United States (100; four more compared to 2011), France (58), Japan (48; two more plants than in 2011), Russia (33; one more than in 2011), South Korea (23; two more plants) and China (23, 9 mpre plants than in 2011). Follow India, Canada and Sweden.Germany is the country which has reduced most the number of operative nuclear plants (from 17 in 2011 to 9 now). For the updating see IAEA website.
 
Table – Operative nuclear plants from 2010 to 2014
(Number of operative nuclear plants, Advanced countries ranking)
Best 21 countries   Worst 21countries
Ranking
Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 Change: 2014 on 2011   Ranking Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 Change: 2014 on 2011
Australia 0 0 0 0 0   22° Brazil 2 2 2 2 0
Austria 0 0 0 0 0   23° Mexico 2 2 2 2 0
Chile 0 0 0 0 0   24° Argentina 2 2 2 3 1
Denmark 0 0 0 0 0   25° Finland 4 4 4 4 0
Estonia 0 0 0 0 0   26° Hungary 4 4 4 4 0
Greece 0 0 0 0 0   27° Slovak Republic 4 4 4 4 0
Iceland 0 0 0 0 0   28° Switzerland 5 5 5 5 0
Indonesia 0 0 0 0 0   29° Czech Republic 6 6 6 6 0
Ireland 0 0 0 0 0   30° Belgium 7 7 7 7 0
10° Israel 0 0 0 0 0   31° Spain 8 8 8 7 -1
11° Italy 0 0 0 0 0   32° Germany 17 9 9 9 -8
12° Luxembourg 0 0 0 0 0   33° Sweden 10 10 10 10 0
13° New Zealand 0 0 0 0 0   34° United Kingdom 19 19 16 16 -3
14° Norway 0 0 0 0 0   35° Canada 18 18 18 19 1
15° Poland 0 0 0 0 0   36° India 20 20 20 21 1
16° Portugal 0 0 0 0 0   37° China 14 16 16 23 9
17° Saudi Arabia 0 0 0 0 0   38° Korea, Rep. 21 23 23 23 2
18° Turkey 0 0 0 0 0   39° Russian Federation 32 33 33 33 1
19° Netherlands 1 1 1 1 0   40° Japan 50 50 50 48 -2
20° Slovenia 1 1 1 1 0   41° France 58 58 58 58 0
21° South Africa 2 2 2 2 0   42° United States 104 104 104 100 -4
Source: LTEconomy elaboration on IAEA data

 

Labor Participation Rate
 
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on the labor participation rate. The higher the index, the higher the social cohesiveness in the country. The latest available data (source: The World Bank) are at 2013. Iceland (73.9%), China (71.3%), Brazil (69.9%) and Switzerland (68.2%) are at the top of the table. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia (52.1%), Hungary (51.9%), Turkey (49.4%) and Italy (49.2%) show the lowest labor participation rates. Compared to 2010, countries show different trends.
 
Table - Labor participation rate in 2010, 2011 and 2012
(Labor Force: % of Population >15, Advanced countries ranking)
 
 
2010
2011
2012
2013
Diff. 2013 su 2010
 
 
2010
2011
2012
2013
Diff. 2013 su 2010
Iceland
74.5
73.8
74.0
73.9
-0.6
22°
Argentina
60.5
60.6
60.7
60.8
0.3
China
70.7
71.0
71.1
71.3
0.6
23°
Ireland
60.9
60.4
60.2
60.5
-0.4
Brazil
70.0
69.9
69.9
69.8
-0.2
24°
Portugal
61.9
61.3
61.1
60.3
-1.6
Switzerland
67.9
68.1
68.1
68.2
0.3
25°
Germany
59.3
59.9
59.8
59.9
0.6
New Zealand
67.7
68.0
67.8
67.8
0.1
26°
Finland
60.3
60.3
60.1
59.8
-0.5
Indonesia
67.8
67.8
67.8
67.7
-0.1
27°
Czech Republic
58.3
58.3
58.8
59.5
1.2
Canada
66.6
66.4
66.3
66.2
-0.4
28°
Slovak Republic
59.0
59.0
59.5
59.5
0.5
Australia
65.6
65.6
65.3
65.2
-0.4
29°
Japan
60.1
59.1
58.9
59.2
-0.9
Norway
65.7
65.4
65.5
64.9
-0.8
30°
Spain
59.2
59.3
59.4
59.0
-0.2
10°
Netherlands
64.6
64.3
64.7
64.4
-0.2
31°
Slovenia
59.3
58.1
57.8
57.7
-1.6
11°
Sweden
63.5
63.9
64.1
64.1
0.6
32°
Luxembourg
57.0
56.8
57.7
57.6
0.6
12°
Russian Federation
63.0
63.4
63.5
63.7
0.7
33°
Poland
55.9
56.1
56.5
56.5
0.6
13°
Israel
57.3
57.4
63.7
63.4
6.1
34°
France
56.2
56.0
56.1
55.9
-0.3
14°
Denmark
64.4
64.0
63.3
62.5
-1.9
35°
Saudi Arabia
51.5
51.8
52.2
54.9
3.4
15°
United States
63.5
63.0
62.9
62.5
-1.0
36°
India
55.4
54.8
54.1
54.2
-1.2
16°
United Kingdom
61.9
61.9
62.1
62.1
0.2
37°
Belgium
53.9
53.0
53.0
53.3
-0.6
17°
Estonia
61.4
62.3
61.8
62.0
0.6
38°
Greece
54.0
53.4
53.2
53.2
-0.8
18°
Chile
60.3
61.6
61.6
61.8
1.5
39°
South Africa
51.3
51.3
51.8
52.1
0.8
19°
Mexico
61.1
60.3
61.6
61.6
0.5
40°
Hungary
50.5
50.9
51.8
51.9
1.4
20°
Austria
60.5
60.7
60.9
61.0
0.5
41°
Turkey
48.5
49.5
49.4
49.4
0.9
21°
Korea, Rep.
60.3
60.5
60.8
61.0
0.7
42°
Italy
48.2
48.1
49.0
49.1
0.9
 
Advanced Countries average
60.5
60.4
60.7
60.7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Source: LTEconomy elaboration on World Bank data

 

Human Development Index
 
The following tables rank the advanced countries based on the human development index (Source: Human Development Organization). It takes into account several social, economic and infrastructural variables in order to measure the degree of development of a country. An high index means that the country is characterized by good living conditions. It ranges from “0” to “1”. The latest available data are at 2013. In the first five positions we find Norway, Australia, Switzerland,  the Netherlands and the United States. Brazil, China, Indonesia, South Africa and India have the lowest indicators among the advanced countries. Compared with 1980’s data, almost all the countries have increased their degree of development.
 
Table - Human development index from 1980 to 2013
(Advanced countries ranking, Italian decimal system)
Advanced Countries ranking
1980
1990
2000
2010
2011
2012
2013
HDI ranking
Norway
0.793
0.841
0.910
0.939
0.941
0.943
0.944
1
Australia
0.841
0.866
0.898
0.926
0.928
0.931
0.933
2
Switzerland
0.806
0.829
0.886
0.915
0.914
0.916
0.917
3
Netherlands
0.783
0.826
0.874
0.904
0.914
0.915
0.915
4
United States
0.825
0.858
0.883
0.908
0.911
0.912
0.914
5
Germany
0.739
0.782
0.854
0.904
0.908
0.911
0.911
6
New Zealand
0.793
0.821
0.873
0.903
0.904
0.908
0.910
7
Canada
0.809
0.848
0.867
0.896
0.900
0.901
0.902
8
Denmark
0.781
0.806
0.859
0.898
0.899
0.900
0.900
10
10°
Ireland
0.734
0.775
0.862
0.899
0.900
0.901
0.899
11
11°
Sweden
0.776
0.807
0.889
0.895
0.896
0.897
0.898
12
12°
Iceland
0.754
0.800
0.858
0.886
0.890
0.893
0.895
13
13°
United Kingdom
0.735
0.768
0.863
0.895
0.891
0.890
0.892
14
14°
Korea (Republic of)
0.628
0.731
0.819
0.882
0.886
0.888
0.891
15
15°
Japan
0.772
0.817
0.858
0.884
0.887
0.888
0.890
17
16°
Israel
0.749
0.785
0.849
0.881
0.885
0.886
0.888
19
17°
France
0.722
0.779
0.848
0.879
0.882
0.884
0.884
20
18°
Austria
0.736
0.786
0.835
0.877
0.879
0.880
0.881
21
19°
Belgium
0.753
0.805
0.873
0.877
0.880
0.880
0.881
21
20°
Luxembourg
0.729
0.786
0.866
0.881
0.881
0.880
0.881
21
21°
Finland
0.752
0.792
0.841
0.877
0.879
0.879
0.879
24

 

Advanced Countries ranking
1980
1990
2000
2010
2011
2012
2013
HDI ranking
22°
Slovenia
..
0.769
0.821
0.873
0.874
0.874
0.874
25
23°
Italy
0.718
0.763
0.825
0.869
0.872
0.872
0.872
26
24°
Spain
0.702
0.755
0.826
0.864
0.868
0.869
0.869
27
25°
Czech Republic
..
0.762
0.806
0.858
0.861
0.861
0.861
28
26°
Greece
0.713
0.749
0.798
0.856
0.854
0.854
0.853
29
27°
Estonia
..
0.730
0.776
0.830
0.836
0.839
0.840
33
28°
Saudi Arabia
0.583
0.662
0.744
0.815
0.825
0.833
0.836
34
29°
Poland
0.687
0.714
0.784
0.826
0.830
0.833
0.834
35
30°
Slovakia
..
0.747
0.776
0.826
0.827
0.829
0.830
37
31°
Chile
0.640
0.704
0.753
0.808
0.815
0.819
0.822
41
32°
Portugal
0.643
0.708
0.780
0.816
0.819
0.822
0.822
41
33°
Hungary
0.696
0.701
0.774
0.817
0.817
0.817
0.818
43
34°
Argentina
0.665
0.694
0.753
0.799
0.804
0.806
0.808
49
35°
Russian Federation
..
0.729
0.717
0.773
0.775
0.777
0.778
57
36°
Turkey
0.496
0.576
0.653
0.738
0.752
0.756
0.759
69
37°
Mexico
0.595
0.647
0.699
0.748
0.752
0.755
0.756
71
38°
Brazil
0.545
0.612
0.682
0.739
0.740
0.742
0.744
79
39°
China
0.423
0.502
0.591
0.701
0.710
0.715
0.719
91
40°
Indonesia
0.471
0.528
0.609
0.671
0.678
0.681
0.684
108
41°
South Africa
0.569
0.619
0.628
0.638
0.646
0.654
0.658
118
42°
India
0.369
0.431
0.483
0.570
0.581
0.583
0.586
135
Source: LTEconomy elaboration on Human Development Organization