The 2nd Principle

EARTH PROTECTION

The practice of this principle derive from the knowledge of what can damage the earth. It is difficult to define all the actions that have generated or could generate damages to the earth. But it is possible to classify them in three aggregations:

  • Actions that damage the natural biodiversity:
a. Excessive substitution of the natural environment with the artificial one (extensive constructions);
b. Nuclear plants: in case of accident can cause a lot of problems to the earth;
c. Excessive production of waste;
d. Irrational diffusion of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO);
e. Commercial hunting that doesn’t take into consideration the real need of the population;
f. ……
  • Actions in conflict with the planet climate equilibrium:

a. Air pollution :
the most part of living being (man included) can live only under specific and stable climate conditions (temperature range and not turbulent atmospheric conditions). Many words have been already said about the “global warming” but what have been done to solve this problem? We live yet in a society with a consumerist and egocentric lifestyle. Another big problem is the excessive dependence from the oil as source of energy.

  • Actions that generate inequalities and social dissatisfaction leading to wars inside and between populations:
a. Inequalities inside and between populations:
all countries have to offer a decent life to their citizens avoiding strong inequalities in the life standards. In this way, we can stop the diffusion of hate, terrorism, riots, and mass migrations. Each country needs the necessary infrastructures and institutions (also thanks to outside aids) able to ensure good life conditions. Water, electricity, gas and transport system are the essential infrastructures. Another important topic is the education system: it is important to avoid situations in which rich children can have an access to education institutions better than that attended by poor children.

Moreover, countries have to support the development of technologies that can eliminate the environmental damages already generated (air water and land pollution).

As said, the variables used in order to measure a country behavior in term of earth protection are classified in environmental variables (measuring the pollution and the source exploitation) and social variables (measuring social participation, social equality and social development):

  • Pollution variables
i) Co2 emissions (total and per capita)
ii) Forest land (% of total land)
iii) Marine protected area (% of total surface)
  • Energy variables
i) Energy per capita use
ii) Combustible renewable and waste (% of total Energy use)
iii) Operative nuclear plants (total and per billions people)
  • Cohesion and social development variables
i) Labor participation rate
ii) Human development index (By the Human development organization)

Indicators

In this section we propose an index which, taking into account the main environmental data, ranks each of the 42 countries analized based on their attitude to pollute the Planet.

 

 

LTEconomy Principle 2 Index
The following table ranks the advanced countries based on their inclination in protecting our planet; this is the Opposition to Pollution Index (also called LTEconomy principle 2 index). This index takes into account the following variables: Co2 per capita emissionsEnergy per capita useCombustible renewable and waste as percentage of total energy use. Each variable is standardized from 0 (worst value) to 1 (best value); the Opposition to Pollution Index is an average between this four standardized variable for each country. For each variable has been used the latest available data (2010 for Co2 per capita emissions; 2012 for Energy per capita use and for Combustible renewable). As for the Opposition to Pollution Index 2013, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Chile and Portugal are placed in the first 5 positions. These are the countries which have less CO2 emissions per capita, less Energy use per capita and make a major use of combustible renewables. On the other hand, Australia, United States, Saudi Arabia, Iceland are in the worst 5 positions.
 
Table - LTEconomy Principle2 Index from 2012 to 2014
(Maximum Value=1; Minimum Value=0; Advanced Countries ranking)
Ranking
Country
2012 Index
2013 Index
2014 Index
Trend
Ranking
Country
2012 Index
2013 Index
2014 Index
Trend
Brazil
0.81
0.81
0.81
-
22°
Greece
0.53
0.54
0.56
India
0.80
0.81
0.81
-
23°
New Zealand
0.52
0.53
0.54
Indonesia
0.80
0.80
0.81
24°
Finland
0.52
0.54
0.54
-
Chile
0.68
0.70
0.71
25°
United Kingdom
0.52
0.54
0.54
-
Portugal
0.64
0.65
0.67
26°
Germany
0.51
0.53
0.53
-
Sweden
0.63
0.64
0.64
-
27°
Ireland
0.50
0.51
0.52
Mexico
0.63
0.64
0.64
-
28°
Japan
0.48
0.50
0.50
-
Denmark
0.59
0.62
0.63
29°
Belgium
0.46
0.49
0.50
Turkey
0.63
0.63
0.63
-
30°
Israel
0.48
0.49
0.49
-
10°
Hungary
0.60
0.62
0.62
-
31°
Czech Republic
0.47
0.48
0.49
11°
Austria
0.59
0.61
0.62
32°
Estonia
0.49
0.51
0.47
12°
Switzerland
0.60
0.60
0.62
33°
Netherlands
0.45
0.46
0.46
-
13°
Argentina
0.61
0.61
0.62
34°
Norway
0.43
0.46
0.44
14°
China
0.63
0.61
0.61
-
35°
Korea, Rep.
0.44
0.43
0.42
15°
Spain
0.56
0.58
0.59
36°
Russian Federation
0.41
0.42
0.41
16°
Italy
0.55
0.57
0.58
37°
Canada
0.31
0.33
0.35
17°
France
0.56
0.57
0.57
-
38°
Australia
0.31
0.30
0.33
18°
Poland
0.56
0.57
0.57
-
39°
United States
0.28
0.29
0.31
19°
Slovak Republic
0.55
0.57
0.57
-
40°
Saudi Arabia
0.30
0.29
0.29
-
20°
Slovenia
0.54
0.56
0.57
41°
Iceland
0.25
0.25
0.26
21°
South Africa
0.55
0.54
0.56
42°
Luxembourg
0.19
0.21
0.22
Source: LTEconomy elaboration